Bono: The good news on poverty (Yes, there’s good news)

Bono: The good news on poverty (Yes, there’s good news)

Translator: Joseph Geni
Reviewer: Morton Bast
Chris Anderson asked me if I could put the last 25 years
of anti-poverty campaigning into 10 minutes for TED.
That’s an Englishman asking an Irishman to be succinct.
I said, “Chris, that would take a miracle.”
He said, “Bono, wouldn’t that be a good use of your messianic complex?”
So, yeah.
Then I thought, let’s go even further than 25 years.
Let’s go back before Christ, three millennia,
to a time when, at least in my head, the journey for justice,
the march against inequality and poverty really began.
Three thousand years ago,
civilization just getting started on the banks of the Nile,
some slaves, Jewish shepherds in this instance,
smelling of sheep shit, I guess,
proclaimed to the Pharaoh, sitting high on his throne,
“We, your majesty-ness, are equal to you.”
And the Pharaoh replies, “Oh, no.
You, your miserableness, have got to be kidding.”
And they say, “No, no, that’s what it says here
in our holy book.”
Cut to our century, same country, same pyramids,
another people spreading the same idea
of equality with a different book.
This time it’s called the Facebook.
Crowds are gathered in Tahrir Square.
They turn a social network from virtual to actual,
and kind of rebooted the 21st century.
Not to undersell how messy and ugly
the aftermath of the Arab Spring has been,
neither to oversell the role of technology,
but these things have given a sense of what’s possible
when the age-old model of power, the pyramid,
gets turned upside down, putting the people on top
and the pharaohs of today on the bottom, as it were.
It’s also shown us that something as powerful
as information and the sharing of it can challenge inequality,
because facts, like people,
want to be free, and when they’re free,
liberty is usually around the corner,
even for the poorest of the poor —
facts that can challenge cynicism
and the apathy that leads to inertia,
facts that tell us what’s working and,
more importantly, what’s not, so we can fix it,
facts that if we hear them and heed them could help us
meet the challenge that Nelson Mandela made
back in 2005,
when he asked us to be that great generation
that overcomes that most awful offense to humanity,
extreme poverty,
facts that build a powerful momentum.
So I thought, forget the rock opera,
forget the bombast, my usual tricks.
The only thing singing today would be the facts,
for I have truly embraced by inner nerd.
So exit the rock star.
Enter the evidence-based activist, the factivist.
Because what the facts are telling us
is that the long, slow journey,
humanity’s long, slow journey of equality,
is actually speeding up.
Look at what’s been achieved.
Look at the pictures these data sets print.
Since the year 2000, since the turn of the millennium,
there are eight million more AIDS patients
getting life-saving antiretroviral drugs.
Malaria: There are eight countries in sub-Saharan Africa
that have their death rates cut by 75 percent.
For kids under five, child mortality, kids under five,
it’s down by 2.65 million a year.
That’s a rate of 7,256 children’s lives saved each day.
Wow. Wow. (Applause)
Let’s just stop for a second, actually, and think about that.
Have you read anything anywhere in the last week
that is remotely as important as that number? Wow.
Great news. It drives me nuts
that most people don’t seem to know this news.
Seven thousand kids a day. Here’s two of them.
This is Michael and Benedicta,
and they’re alive thanks in large part
to Dr. Patricia Asamoah — she’s amazing —
and the Global Fund, which all of you financially support,
whether you know it or not.
And the Global Fund provides antiretroviral drugs
that stop mothers from passing HIV to their kids.
This fantastic news didn’t happen by itself.
It was fought for, it was campaigned for,
it was innovated for.
And this great news gives birth to even more great news,
because the historic trend is this.
The number of people living in back-breaking,
soul-crushing extreme poverty has declined
from 43 percent of the world’s population in 1990
to 33 percent by 2000
and then to 21 percent by 2010.
Give it up for that. (Applause)
Halved. Halved.
Now, the rate is still too high — still too many people
unnecessarily losing their lives.
There’s still work to do.
But it’s heart-stopping. It’s mind-blowing stuff.
And if you live on less than $1.25 a day,
if you live in that kind of poverty,
this is not just data.
This is everything.
If you’re a parent who wants the best for your kids — and I am —
this rapid transition is a route out of despair and into hope.
And guess what? If the trajectory continues,
look where the amount of people living on $1.25 a day
gets to by 2030.
Can’t be true, can it?
That’s what the data is telling us. If the trajectory continues,
we get to, wow, the zero zone.
For number-crunchers like us,
that is the erogenous zone,
and it’s fair to say that I am, by now,
sexually aroused by the collating of data.
So virtual elimination of extreme poverty,
as defined by people living on less than $1.25 a day,
adjusted, of course, for inflation from a 1990 baseline.
We do love a good baseline.
That’s amazing.
Now I know that some of you think this progress
is all in Asia or Latin America or
model countries like Brazil —
and who doesn’t love a Brazilian model? —
but look at sub-Saharan Africa.
There’s a collection of 10 countries, some call them the lions,
who in the last decade have had a combination
of 100 percent debt cancellation,
a tripling of aid, a tenfold increase in FDI —
that’s foreign direct investment —
which has unlocked a quadrupling of domestic resources — that’s local money —
which, when spent wisely — that’s good governance —
cut childhood mortality by a third,
doubled education completion rates,
and they, too, halved extreme poverty,
and at this rate, these 10 get to zero too.
So the pride of lions
is the proof of concept.
There are all kinds of benefits to this.
For a start, you won’t have to listen
to an insufferable little jumped-up Jesus like myself.
How about that? (Applause)
And 2028, 2030? It’s just around the corner.
I mean, it’s about three Rolling Stones farewell concerts away.
(Laughter) I hope. I’m hoping.
Makes us look really young.
So why aren’t we jumping up and down about this?
Well, the opportunity is real, but so is the jeopardy.
We can’t get this done until we really accept
that we can get this done.
Look at this graph.
It’s called inertia. It’s how we screw it up.
And the next one is really beautiful.
It’s called momentum.
And it’s how we can bend the arc of history
down towards zero,
just doing the things that we know work.
So inertia versus momentum.
There is jeopardy, and of course,
the closer you get, it gets harder.
We know the obstacles that are in our way
right now, in difficult times.
In fact, today in your capital, in difficult times,
some who mind the nation’s purse want to cut
life-saving programs like the Global Fund.
But you can do something about that.
You can tell politicians
that these cuts [can cost] lives.
Right now today, in Oslo as it happens,
oil companies are fighting to keep secret
their payments to governments
for extracting oil in developing countries.
You can do something about that too.
You can join the One Campaign,
and leaders like Mo Ibrahim, the telecom entrepreneur.
We’re pushing for laws that make sure that at least some
of the wealth under the ground
ends up in the hands of the people living above it.
And right now, we know
that the biggest disease of all
is not a disease. It’s corruption.
But there’s a vaccine for that too.
It’s called transparency, open data sets,
something the TED community is really on it.
Daylight, you could call it, transparency.
And technology is really turbocharging this.
It’s getting harder to hide if you’re doing bad stuff.
So let me tell you about the U-report,
which I’m really excited about. It’s 150,000 millennials
all across Uganda, young people
armed with 2G phones, an SMS social network
exposing government corruption
and demanding to know what’s in the budget
and how their money is being spent.
This is exciting stuff.
Look, once you have these tools,
you can’t not use them.
Once you have this knowledge, you can’t un-know it.
You can’t delete this data from your brain,
but you can delete the cliched image
of supplicant, impoverished peoples
not taking control of their own lives.
You can erase that, you really can,
because it’s not true anymore. (Applause)
It’s transformational.
2030? By 2030, robots,
not just serving us Guinness, but drinking it.
By the time we get there,
every place with a rough semblance of governance
might actually be on their way.
So I’m here to — I guess we’re here
to try and infect you with this virtuous, data-based virus,
the one we call factivism.
It’s not going to kill you.
In fact, it could save countless lives.
I guess we in the One Campaign would love you
to be contagious, spread it, share it, pass it on.
By doing so, you will join us and countless others
in what I truly believe is the greatest adventure ever taken,
the ever-demanding journey of equality.
Could we really be the great generation
that Mandela asked us to be?
Might we answer that clarion call with science,
with reason, with facts,
and, dare I say it, emotions?
Because as is obvious, factivists have feelings too.
I’m thinking of Wael Ghonim, though.
Some of you know him. He set up one of the Facebook groups
behind the Tahrir Square in Cairo.
He got thrown in jail for it,
but I have his words tattooed on my brain.
“We are going to win because we don’t understand politics.
We are going to win because we don’t play their dirty games.
We are going to win because we don’t have a party political agenda.
We are going to win because the tears
that come from our eyes actually come from our hearts.
We are going to win because we have dreams,
and we’re willing to stand up for those dreams.”
Wael is right.
We’re going to win
if we work together as one,
because the power of the people
is so much stronger than the people in power.
Thank you.
Thank you so much. (Applause)

100 thoughts to “Bono: The good news on poverty (Yes, there’s good news)”

  1. i don't know. i'm guessing the people who disliked this didn't watch the whole thing and are just anti-Bono…which is fine, i guess, but if they saw the whole thing, they would have learned and then LIKED it. He made a good talk here. i certainly like this TEDtalk !

  2. I always believe ..v just need to pay our dues to everyone around and to our nation ..being honest and kind is one way of reducing poor people in this world ..everyone has desire to grow and be rich but, the only thing is v need care from others along ..

  3. What has this POS actual do to raise humanity from poverty … talk ? Go to conventions ? make speeches … How about organizing community farms to feed the poor … oh never mind that would actually require some work. Just my opinions.

  4. he's done more than you'll ever imagine, you self obnoxius fuck. why dont you do something before criticizing someone.

  5. i did.
    its complete bullshit.
    the websites arent even reliable.
    Make sure you check creditability before believing in them

  6. because heres a speech by a man on poverty, a billionaire, whos not content on making 100s of million from music but who feels the need to invest his money in property, start up companies,shares and stocks to make more money and most importantly heres a man who preaches to governments around the world to aid third world nations yet he does his best to avoid paying taxes, an irishman whos holding company is registered in holland. so i ask why is there only 416 dislikes

  7. He probably believes it is more important to spend that would-be tax money in Africa than in Ireland, which already has an excellent quality of life and welfare state by comparison.

  8. The problem with saving lives indiscriminately is what are you going to do with those lives later on? Will you be able to feed and provide jobs to all of them or are you going to have to get rid of many in wars? How about when those saved lives start reproducing? If Earth is already producing more than it can sustainably, where are we going to get resources to feed all the resultant population explosions? In parallel with saving lives, we must implement strong family planning strategies.

  9. actually the real problem is not the lack of food but the maldistribution of it. If you watch others videos of TED or any ONG they show us that we have food to everyone, but there are some problems that we have to face, and the the worst is the CORRUPTION, the central theme of Bono's video. So if a little critcism and justice we cant get it. I know it's almost a utopia, but we need to start somehow

  10. he is not a hypocrite! He won his money because of his job, talented, shows! He didn't steal from anyone, he have the rights to have money, he is not socialist. At least he do something to help

  11. If he quit calling himself bono and binned the shades and cashed down some of his fortune to charity and didn't advertise watches on national geographic, maybe people wouldn't think he's a hypocrite.

  12. Who's willing to feed people for free? Farmers have costs. Are you willing to provide less to your children in order to feed people who cannot find jobs and produce even more people who cannot find jobs? I would accept to feed one or two as long as they cannot reproduce. If they can, the problem becomes a snowball.

  13. I'm not saying this, you just took fragments of what I said. If everyone, who has conditions, donate just a little part of their money, I'm not saying much, just a little, the extreme poverty would end. Do you really believe that our society is fair?

  14. Extreme poverty will never end while people are allowed and even encouraged to have more than one child each. Poverty is not a situation, it's an industry. Without poverty, the clergy and middlemen would have no arguments to get money from the rich. They depend on poverty. With computers, rich countries could have put an end to corruption in poor countries by now, but they don't care – they are making money too: charity institutions, and the arms and pharmaceutical industry. It's all hypocrisy.

  15. Extreme poverty can end. The poverty I agree with you, but even if everybody is a hypocrite, you don't have to be poisoned by this mud. The happiness of helping at least one person is unaccountable. I live in Brazil, a third world country, I'm part of the middlemen and I know all of this that you said, I've been fooled by a fake NGO.But if nobody cares about the poor people, I care and I'll try to help, and maybe this is a utopia, but for the kid who was able to go study and survive is helpful

  16. Has Bono taken into account that there has been inflation and the dollar does not buy the same things it would many years ago?

  17. Something he did not touch on is FOOD. The Rockefeller Foundation, Monsanto Corporation, Syngenta Foundation and the Government of Norway, among others own a seed vault in the artic so that "crop diversity can be conserved for the future." These corporations are for genetically modified food to feed the world for the future. GMOs are already damaging our bodies. This group is buying land in courtries he mentioned, in order to own our food. This is something else that Bono supports. Look it up.

    Featuring: Bono the ball-less one
    Half women, Half Jerk!…come one, come all and see the pink-eyed freak!

  19. If everyone moved to America we could all live in a mega city with a concentration similar to Victorian London. And use the rest of the globe for growing stuff. Sorted . Oh hold on…

  20. There is no need to start to be nasty and rude. People can have different point of views but is important to respect each other and be open to dialogue. No need to insult.

  21. I won't disagree with you but… In the years it may take to work out these systemic issues (which may take a Century) to work out, what do the people do today? Without clean water and healthy food and educational opportunities simply telling someone; "We're working on it." doesn't help them in the least. If you were destitute, hungry and drinking contaminated water would you be OK with knowing that your Great Grandkids MIGHT have it a bit better if you'd just "be patient"?

  22. If one of my children or grandchildren were hungry and thirsty I would be (outwardly) grateful to ANYONE who supplied them food and water. Taking food/water from my enemies IS an affront and a slap at my dignity but, a hungry child doesn't care about politics of people like you and I even if they could take part in our existential YouTube discussion. A child is hungry? Feed him and discuss politics at our leisure. Don't think that I don't understand YOUR viewpoint. You may be quite right.

  23. I agree with transparency of government and where the public's money it truly going. I also agree that natural resources belong to everyone. I will say that those who discover or extract do deserve just pay for their efforts but not all the money coming "out of the ground." We also need to realize that corruption isn't just on a government level. There are so many people out there using aid meant to help start a life as as way a way of life. When that corruption is dealt with, then it works

  24. Great news but this guy just gets ever more hypocrytical, why not pax your taxes first bono, that might help towards the 'global fund'

  25. Bono – over 2,000 meals produced for the poor and homeless of Dublin City! Your City! On Christmas Day thanks to the Knights of St. Columbanus –
    Perhaps if you paid your taxes due in Ireland instead of regurgitating the prompted words put in your ear by your PR company on the TED stage we could address this issue – as they say – charity starts in the home!
    BTW- TED talks have lost ALL CREDIBILITY thanks to bonzo – sorry – bono – I was thinking of a different MUPPET there!

  26. I've paid taxes all my working life and my weekly tax pays for 3 unemployed people. Tax is not robbery, tax is what you pay to support your community. Mr. Hewson got the full benefits of the Artists exemption from tax while building his career and decided to relocate to the Netherlands rather than pay his FAIR share. That's his choice good luck to him, all I ask is that he shuts the fuck up lecturing the rest of us on what he perceives to be our moral duty.

  27. So do you think this guy should pay his fair share of tax or is that only for ordinary people? The Republic of Ireland gave Bono & Co. major tax breaks for years(the artists tax exemption) while ordinary people in Ireland pay 52% income tax. If he feels guilty about the poor why doesn't he use his own money instead of lobbying governments to use hard pressed taxpayers money?

  28. 'The power of the people is so much stronger than the people in power'. While this may be true ideologically government controls defence and financial resource which is in turn corrupted by big business i.e. greed, the seed of poverty. The real solution here is one of mass commitment by global citizens that this paradigm is flawed and WE need to change it. How? We need to change the dynamics of how (and if) politicians control governance and policy – our traditional voting and evaluation methods are flawed. I say vote bi-yearly and eject complacency and ineffective politics (don't perform on policy? bye,bye). I say destroy the financial debt dynamic controlled by profiteering banks and business (consumers 'own' brands/banks- if we choose to support them that is). If you want the people to be stronger than government let us be stronger than government not lame dumbed down electors – change why/how we create government – then we're stronger.

  29. I love how everyone's only counter to this video is that he hasn't payed taxes. I'm sorry that some of you people believe that one bad deed melts away every last good deed this man has done. Yes, what he did was wrong. But are his values just not pure enough? Do you really think this man is lying? He was brought to the verge of tears in the end. You must truly believe in a cause for that kind of emotion.This man will go down in history for his good deeds whether you like it or not.

  30. WE hold the power.  Even if you are born into a corrupt, police state you can still "Do Unto Others as You Would Have Them Do Unto You".  The Golden Rule is a tenet of every major World religion and also holds a high place in secular humanism (atheism).  The simple act of treating your fellow man the way you would wish to be treated could help heal almost every problem in the World.  The "Tithe" (giving 10% of one's income to charity) would END hunger and provide clean water and basic medical aid to EVERY single human being on Earth!  Be very judicious in who you hand your $ to and do your homework before giving.  As you read this we have the power in OUR hands to make the World a great place to be.  The "Power of One" is quite real.  (btw; I'm not some "Pollyanna", but am an old Libertarian/Conservative and often quite cynical…)

    Peace to all.

  31. Thanks Jazzy Babe!  So many cynical, envious Pr*cks in the World hate Bono.  He's not a hypocrite and I dare anyone to disrespect him if they don't personally give away at least 10% of THEIR wealth and income to worthy charities.  A few hundred "Bono's" would change the World!  God Bless him…

  32. Join our group

     to find out how to help with the 

    $100 a term/per child to help kids pictured on our site who
    desperately need your help so they can continue their education! We also have primary age kids in need of $15 a month for school.
    Can anyone give a 1 time donation or commit to sponsoring one of these kids? 

  33. Saw this response on one of Irelands national newspapers yesterday suggesting 'Should the Irish people stop giving Bono so much slack' and thought it was excellent…
    "he is a singer in a band. 
    he promotes (his own) charities (which make millions for executives). 
    he has NO MANDATE to speak for or on behalf of anybody in Ireland. 
    he is a PUPPET of the political elite attempting to sanitise their corruption, their fascism and their oppression of ordinary people by appealing to the celebrity-worship culture created by Hollywood, TV Networks and the Music/Porn industry.
    his opinion is of NO value to anybody.
    he has a personal fortune of €500 million … he knows nothing of austerity.
    his "contribution" to political, social and economic debate is an insult to intelligent people.
    he has a megalomaniac's perception of his place in the world.
    he believes himself to be the NEW MANDELA.
    he needs to shut up.
    does that answer your question?"
    Great response and sums Bono up perfectly. Its a pity the majority of the people around the World don't also see through him. By him refusing to pay tax in Ireland means there is less funding available for the Irish government to send overseas as foreign aid so in turn this makes Bono the ultimate Hypocrite… 'Do as I say, not as I do'
    Its time Bono finally shut up for once and for all!!

  34. This is from a Daily Mail Article…"Bono's anti-poverty foundation ONE is under pressure to explain its finances after it was revealed that only a small percentage of money it raises reaches the needy.
    The non-profit organisation set up by the U2 frontman received almost £9.6million in donations in 2008 but handed out only £118,000 to good causes (1.2 per cent).
    The figures published by the New York Post also show that £5.1million went towards paying salaries."   So Do you still thiink he's going to save the world?

  35. This is too optimistic. The zero zone, that is, having the worlds popullation living with at least little more than 1.25 dollars a day may be twenty years from now, doesn't represent a particularly good news. The problem is much bigger than that. I like the fact that there is progress, that we're saving – some – lives. I liked what he says about corruption, transparency and the power of the people, but he lives in a different world if he thinks we are even close to solving those other problems. The wealth gap is still increasing. And for change to be significative and fast we woud need revolution, and the porblem is that that has consecuenses: a little more deads, crisis and caos. Diplomacy won't do it as it did it for debt cancelation. My point: change is slow, acknowledge there's progress, but do worrie and keep contributing to it.

  36. Bono, Have  you looked  into Saddleback Church and  see what  they  have done  in Uganda and  will do with the  rest of  Africa. Pastor Rick Warren with   the PEACE program is  somthing  you and  all Americans  should look into.  go and  see for yourselves at

  37. No es admirar a alguien por su belleza física o la forma de su sonrisa, es admirar a alguien por como aportan su grano de arena para hacer de esto mundo más vivible, cuando creí que era suficiente con sus canciones surge esta etapa tan trascendental de Bono, sólo diré una palabra : ¡GRANDE!

  38. Mind boggling how silly the comments are about a guy who has helped save millions of lives talking about keeping the momentum going.

    Which part of this speech or these facts is problematic for so many of you to understand?

    You don't like a rock star who instead of behaving like Justin Bieber or Axl Rose campaigns to save lives?

    He's not making any sense? Which part didn't make sense? The 7,000+ children a day who get to live?

    I can't figure out whether the silly comments are because you don't like U2 music, you're upset about some U2 tax issue that has zero bearing on what he spoke about here or you're just idiots. Probably a little bit of all of the above.

    According to you, because he hasn't donated his fortune to the cause he shouldn't rally people and governments to help the poor and sick? Better he just enjoy his wealth and shut up?

    How do you know how much money he's donated or not? How do you quantify the amount of hours he's worked on these issues often at times putting his band, passion and livelihood last.

    The comments on this video surely prove the adage "no good deed goes unpunished"

    Especially when people doing the judging and rendering the verdicts are often illogical fools.

  39. This man is one of the most positive I've ever seen, he just makes me hopeful and listening to him is just kind of enchanting, he's really a great speaker

  40. Wait, let me get this right…..we take a group of people that are under $1.25 a day and push then into the next highest bracket eg $1.25-$2.50 a day, and then we proclaim this as a victory???

  41. all the haters have to stand up and do something for humanity before opening their mouth.

    and by the way. Everyone should watch "from the sky down". even just from the aspect of music itself very interesting. but there you will see why he and u2 is like he/they is/are. It was like a psychological counter-reaction

  42. Bono you live in a capitalist society, its not brain surgery, there are winners and losers, you happen to be one of life's winners but at the expense of losers. You can't complain when you are causing it. we can end poverty next week if the mega rich billionaires like Bono redistribute their wealth, but we know that Bono is blind to that simple fact, and we will see Bono talking to the 5000 at venues for the rest of his life, it really makes you look like a great guy Bono you've got a job for life mate.

  43. Bono, at least, took a courage to organize concerts to raise fund to save the hunger in Africa. The criticizers did nothing, but sit on the fence and criticised. Too many critique and no action. That is the problem politics, economy, morality and spirituality all have in common universally. I think this comment of mine is succinct enough.

  44. We do need physical and materialistic supplies to the poor in order to eliminate the poverty. I do agree. However, the poor will always exist, unless we show them how to overcome poverty. I'm talking about the fact the materialistic poverty is caused by the spiritual poverty. We don't need to depend on others to attain independence, both spiritual and material. We need to teach and learn from one another how to fish a fish. Being given a fish will soon face a thick wall. Unless one is totally financially independent, he/she is not spiritually independent. Education and training help, and are the only two means to attain the total independence. Even in the developed nations such as Europe and the USA, there are tons of people who are in the material and spiritual poverty. That is the fact and we have to take care of all by caring and sharing for others. We have to be others-centered. Our wealth is made at the cost of others poverty. That is the reality no one in the rich class talks about. The rich can do a lot more; live on the 10% of their income and donate the 90% for good causes, if they want to benefit more and gain peace of mind for their greed.

  45. I love Bono but he doesn't understand the consequences of exponential population growth at all.

  46. Good, feed people but keep your egotistical opinions out of American politics dont preach your obama suckass bullshit to us or your phony Christian piety, You Do Not Speak for the Real Americans

  47. These facts are amazing, but how can Bono be pro abortion which is totally hypocritical of him and U2, that goes towards EVERYTHING against his humanitarian beliefs. Sincerely, one pissed off U2 fan

  48. Hi Bono, we first met at Kitty O'Sheas back in 1993. I was recording an album at the then ''new'' Windmill lane under the ame Daniel Weaver. Ever since then, I've been following your growth as true presence of good in our world. Recently, you said that you struggled with humility. ''I can fake it very well'' were your words. Yes, you may have worked and reworked your talk but it is clear to me that when a man has accomplished as much as you have, and this while constantly asking for HIS will to be done, there is no need for humility because there is simply no need for ego. In this talk, you have proved that brother. Thank you for all your work. Keep on being present. You are his example of the instrument we can all be. Much love to Ally and the kids and of course the boys. All my heart, Daniel (Weaver) Taddeo.

  49. Mach Dich weg, Bono. Außer Hardcore Fans glaubt dir heute kaum noch einer. Geh und kauf Land in Afrika für Monsanto.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *